The Fox chief refused to ratify the cession and with some of
his trusty followers, set out for Iowa from which some of the Fox members had previously
returned. They purchased a small tract of land near Tama City, Iowa and later
made more purchases, until the tribe owned some 3,000 acres. From that time,
this faction of the Fox had no further political connection with the Sac. In
1867, the Kansas reservation passed
into the hands of the United States Government, the
Indians accepting a reservation in the Indian Territory, and in 1889 they were allotted lands in severalty.
(sleepy ones) were a southwestern Siouan tribe belonging
to the Chiwere group, composed of the Iowa,
Otoe and Missouri tribes, all of
which sprang from Winnebago stock, to which they were closely allied by language
and tradition. Old Iowa chiefs said that the tribe separated from the Winnebago
on the shores of Lake Michigan, and at the time of the separation, received the
name of "gray snow."
Afterwards they lived on the Des Moines
River, near the pipestone quarry in Minnesota, at the mouth of
the Platte River, and on the headwaters of the Little Platte River in
Missouri. In 1824, they
ceded their lands in Missouri and in 1836
moved to a reservation in the
northeast corner of Kansas. When
this reservation was ceded to the United States the tribe removed to central
Oklahoma, where in 1890 they were
allotted lands in severalty.
Kickapoo, a tribe of the central
Algonquian group, is first mentioned in
history about 1670, when Father Allouez found them living near the portage
between the Fox and Wisconsin Rivers. Ethnologically, the Kickapoo were closely
related to the Sac and Fox, with whom they entered into a scheme for the
destruction of Detroit in 1712. When the Illinois Confederacy was broken up in
1765, the Kickapoo had their headquarters for a time at
Illinois. They were
allied with Shawnee Chief Tecumseh in his conspiracy early in the 19th century, and in 1832,
took part in the Black Hawk War.
Five years later they aided the government in the war with the Seminole. After ceding their lands in central
moved to Missouri and still later to Kansas, settling on a reservation near Fort Leavenworth. About 1852 a number
of Kickapoo joined a party of Potawatomi and went to
Texas. Later they went
to Mexico and became known as the "Mexican Kickapoo." In 1905, the Bureau of
Ethnology reported 434 Kickapoo -- 247 in Oklahoma and 167 in Kansas.
Among the Kickapoo the gentile system prevailed and marriage was outside of their
bands. In summer they lived in houses of bark, and in winter, in
oval lodges constructed of reeds. They practiced agriculture in a primitive way.
Their mythology was characterized by many fables of animals, the dog being
especially venerated and regarded as an object of offering always acceptable to
the great Manitou.
Potawatomi belonged to the
Algonquian group and were first encountered by
white men in the vicinity of Green Bay, Wisconsin. They were originally associated
Chippewa as one tribe, the separation taking place about the
head of Lake Huron. Subsequently, the three tribes formed a confederacy
for offense or defense, and when removed west of the
River asked to be
united again. They sided with the French until about 1760, took part in the
Pontiac Conspiracy, and fought against the United States in the
American Revolution. The
Treaty of Greeneville put an end to hostilities, but in the War of 1812, they
again allied themselves with the British.
Between the years 1836 and 1841 they were moved west of the Mississippi
River, those in Indiana having to be removed by force. Some escaped to
Canada and lived on Walpole Island in the St. Clair River.
In 1846 all those in the United States
were united on a reservation in Miami County, Kansas. In
November, 1861, this tract was
ceded to the United States and the tribe accepted a reservation of 30 miles
square near Horton, Jackson County, Kansas, where
their reservation continues to stand today.
From government reports in 1908, there were then about
2,500 Potawatomi in the United States, 676 of whom were in Kansas.