History in Kansas - Page 4
In 1820 there were two bands -- numbering about 700
Texas, but by 1835
most of the
Delaware were settled upon their
Kansas reservation between the
Rivers. Their title to this reservation was finally
extinguished in 1866, and on April 11, 1867, President Johnson approved an
agreement by which the Delaware merged their tribal existence with the
there was found an ancient hieroglyphic bark record giving the traditions of the
tribe. This old record was translated and published in 1885.
It gives an account of the creation of the world by great Manito; and of the
flood, in which Nanabush, the Strong White One, grandfather of men, created the
turtle, on which some were saved. This book is known as the "Walam Olum."
Munsees (where stones are gathered together), one of the three principal
divisions of the
Delaware, originally occupied the country about the headwaters
of the Delaware River. By what was known as the "walking purchase," in about 1740,
they were defrauded out of the greater portion of their lands and forced to move. They obtained lands from the Iroquois on the Susquehanna
River, where they
lived until the Indian country was established by the act of 1830, when they removed to what is now Franklin
County, Kansas, with some of the
report of the Bureau of Ethnology for 1885 says the only Munsees then recognized
officially by the United States were 72, living in Franklin County, Kansas, all
the others having been incorporated with the Cherokee Nation.
(traders), according to one of their traditions, were once part of a tribe to
which belonged also the Chippewa and Potawatomi,
all of the great
family. They moved as one tribe from their original
habitat north of the great lakes, and separated about the straits of Mackinaw.
Another account says that when the Iroquois destroyed the Huron Indians in
1648-49, what was left of the Huron found refuge with the
which caused the Iroquois to turn on that tribe. The
and the Huron then fled to Green Bay, where they were welcomed by the
who had preceded them to that locality.
is mentioned in the Jesuit Relations as early as 1670, when Father Dablon,
superior of the mission at Mackinaw, said: "We call these people Upper Algonkin
to distinguish them from the Lower Alkonkin, who are lower down in the vicinity
of Tadousac and Quebec. People commonly give them the name of
of more than 30 different tribes which are found in these countries, the first
that descended to the French settlements were the Ottawa, whose name afterward
attached to all the others."
Ottawa and Huron went to the
River and established themselves
on an island in Lake Pepin. They were soon driven out by the
Sioux and went to
the Black River in Wisconsin, where the Huron built a fort, but the
continued east to Chaquamegon Bay. In 1700 the Huron were located near Detroit
Ottawa were between that post and the Saginaw
Bay. The Ohio
Ottawawere removed west of the
Mississippi River in 1832.
The following year, by the
of Chicago, those living along the west shore of Lake Michigan ceded their lands
there and were given a reservation in Franklin County, Kansas, the county seat of
which bears the name of the tribe. In 1906 there were about 1,500
in Manitoulin and Cockburn Islands, Canada; 197 under the Seneca school in
Oklahoma; and nearly 4,000 in the State of Michigan.
The Chippewa or Ojibway (to roast till puckered up) formerly ranged along the
shores of Lake Superior and Lake Huron, extending across Minnesota to the Turtle
mountains in North Dakota. At the time America was discovered, the Chippewa
lived at La Pointe, Ashland County, Wisconsin, on the south shore of Lake
Superior, where they had a village called Shangawaumikong.
Early in the 18th
century the Chippewa drove the Fox tribe from northern Wisconsin, and also drove
west of the
Mississippi River. Other
Chippewa overran the peninsula lying between Lake
Huron and Lake Erie and forced the Iroquois to withdraw from that section. There
were ten principal divisions of the tribe scattered through Michigan, Wisconsin,
Minnesota and North Dakota, with more than 20 bands. Prior to 1815 the Chippewa
were frequently engaged in war with the white settlers, but after the treaty of
that year they remained peaceful.
In 1836, what were known as the Swan Creek and Black River
Chippewa sold their
lands in southern Michigan and moved to the Munsee Reservation in Franklin
County, Kansas. In 1905 the Bureau
of Ethnology estimated the number of Chippewa in the United States and Canada at
30,000, about one-half of which were in the United States.
The Miami (peninsular people), one of the
most important of the Algonquan tribes,
was called by some of the early chroniclers the "Twightwees." The region over
which they roamed was once outlined in a speech by their famous chief, Little
Turtle, who said: "My fathers kindled the first fire at Detroit; thence they
extended their lines to the headwaters of the Scioto; thence to its mouth;
thence down the Ohio to the month of the Wabash, and thence to Chicago over Lake
of the Miami tribe have been described as "of medium height, well built, heads
rather round than oblong, countenances agreeable rather than sedate or morose,
swift on foot and excessively fond of racing."
The women spun thread of
hair, of which they made bags in which to carry provisions when on a march.
Their deities were the sun and the thunder, and they had but few minor gods. Six
bands of the
Miami were known to the French, the principal ones being the
Wea and Pepicokia.
Piankashaw was first mentioned by La Salle in
1682 as one of the tribes that gathered about his fort in the Illinois country.
Chauvignerie classed the
Wea and Pepicokia as one tribe, but
inhabiting different villages. The Miami were divided into ten
bands -- wolf,
loon, eagle, buzzard, panther, turkey, raccoon, snow, sun and water -- and the
elk and crane were their principal totems.
Early in the 19th century the
Wea were located in
Missouri, and in 1832 they agreed to remove
to Kansas as one tribe. About 1854
they were consolidated with the
Kaskaskia, and in 1868 the
consolidated tribe was removed to a reservation on the Neosho River in
northeastern Oklahoma. Numerous treaties were made between the main body of the
Miami and the United States, and in November, 1840, the last of the tribe was removed west of the
Mississippi River. Six years later some of them were in Linn County,
Kansas, and others had been confederated with the Peoria and other
tribes. In 1873 they were removed to the
The Sac and Fox, usually spoken of as one tribe, were originally two separate and
distinct tribes, but both of
Algonquian stock. The Sac (or Sauk), when first met by
white men, inhabited the lower peninsula of Michigan and were known as "Yellow
Earth People." At that time, the Fox lived along the southern shore of Lake
Superior and were called the "Red Earth People." There is a tribal tradition
that before the Sac became an independent people they belonged to an Algonquian group composed of the
Potawatomi, Fox and
Mascouten tribes. After the
Sac and Fox
moved northwest, and in 1720 were located near
Green Bay, Wisconsin but as two separate tribes. Trouble with the Fox led to a division
of the Sac, one faction going to the Fox and the other to the Potawatomi.
In 1733, some Fox, pursued by the French, took refuge at the Sac village near
the present city of Green Bay, Wisconsin. Sieur de Villiers made a demand for the
surrender of the refugees, but it was refused, and in trying to take them by
force, several of the French were killed. Governor Beauharnois, of Canada, then gave
orders to make war on the Sac and Fox. This led to a close confederation of
the two tribes, and since then they have been known as the
Sac and Fox.
early days of the confederacy there were numerous bands, but in time these were
reduced to 14. Black Hawk, the Sac War Chief, was a member of the thunder clan. After several treaties with the United
Sac and Fox in 1837 ceded their lands in Iowa and were given a
reservation in Franklin and Osage Counties of Kansas. In 1859 the Fox returned
buffalo hunt to find that in their absence the
Sac had made a treaty
ceding the Kansas reservation to
the United States.
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